Element

Element

Quick Specs
  • Designed For XC Race
  • Wheel Size 29"

The Element is the fastest, best handling full-suspension XC race bike Rocky Mountain Bicycles has ever made.

Element 999 RSL 7

Specifications: Element 999 RSL

    • Frame FORM™ Alloy Custom Hydroformed Frame ABC™ Pivots Tapered Head Tube Press Fit BB Internal Cable Routing
    • Sizes S - M - L - XL - 2XL
    • Fork RockShox Recon Gold TK 29 Solo Air
    • Front Travel 100mm. Lockout / Rebound / 15mm Maxle Lite / Tapered Steerer
    • Shock RockShox Monarch RL Custom Valved
    • Rear Travel SmoothLink™ Design 95mm. Rebound / Lockout
    • Headset Cane Creek Ten Series: ZS44mm Top / ZS56mm Bottom Tapered
    • Stem Rocky Mountain L7 7° x 70-100mm
    • Handlebar Rocky Mountain Flat Wide Ø31.8mm x 700mm x 9° Sweep
    • Grips Rocky Mountain XC Kraton
    • Brakes Avid Elixir 3 Hydraulic Disc 180mm
    • Brake Levers Avid Elixir 3
    • Shifters Shimano Deore Rapid Fire 3x10spd
    • Front Derailleur Shimano SLX E Mount 3x10spd
    • Rear Derailleur Shimano SLX Direct Mount 10spd
    • Cranks & Chainrings FSA Comet 170-175mm 42/32/24T 3x10spd
    • Bottom Bracket FSA Press Fit Mega Exo
    • Cassette Shimano HG62 11-36T 10spd
    • Chain KMC X10 10spd
    • Front Hub Shimano SLX 15mm Axle
    • Rear Hub Shimano SLX 12 x 142mm E Thru
    • Spokes DT Swiss Champion
    • Rims Wheeltech Inferno 23 by SUNringlé
    • Tires Continental Folding F: X King 29\" x 2.2\" / R: Race King 29\" x 2.2\"
    • Seatpost Rocky Mountain XC 30.9mm x 400mm
    • Saddle Rocky Mountain XC
    • Frame FORM™ Alloy Custom Hydroformed Frame ABC™ Pivots Tapered Head Tube Press Fit BB Internal Cable Routing
    • Sizes S - M - L - XL - 2XL
    • Fork RockShox SID RL 29
    • Front Travel 100mm. Motion Control Lockout / Rebound / 15mm Maxle Lite / Tapered Steerer
    • Shock RockShox Monarch RL Custom Valved
    • Rear Travel SmoothLink™ Design 95mm. Rebound / Lockout
    • Headset Cane Creek Forty Series: ZS44mm Top / ZS56mm Bottom Tapered
    • Stem Race Face 6° x 70-100mm
    • Handlebar Race Face Turbine Flat Wide Ø31.8mm x 700mm x 9° Sweep
    • Grips Rocky Mountain Lock On XC
    • Brakes Avid Elixir 50 XR Hydraulic Disc 180mm
    • Brake Levers Avid Elixir 50 XR MatchMaker
    • Shifters Sram X7 MatchMaker Triggers 3x10spd
    • Front Derailleur Shimano SLX E Mount 3x10spd
    • Rear Derailleur Sram X9 10spd
    • Cranks & Chainrings Race Face Evolve 170-175mm 42/32/24T 3x10spd
    • Bottom Bracket Race Face Press Fit Team XC
    • Cassette Sram PG-1030 12-36T 10spd
    • Chain Sram PC-1031 10spd
    • Front Hub Wheeltech SL Hi Tension Straight Pull / Precision Sealed Japanese Bearings / 24H / 15mm Axle
    • Rear Hub Wheeltech SL Hi Tension Straight Pull / Precision Sealed Japanese Bearings / 28H / 12 x 142mm Axle
    • Spokes DT Swiss Champion Straight Pull
    • Rims Wheeltech Inferno 23 by SUNringlé
    • Tires Continental Folding F: X King 29\" x 2.2\" / R: Race King 29\" x 2.2\"
    • Seatpost Rocky Mountain XC 30.9mm x 400mm
    • Saddle Rocky Mountain XC Light
    • Frame SMOOTHWALL™ Carbon Front Triangle FORM™ Alloy Custom Hydroformed Rear Triangle ABC™ Pivots Tapered Head Tube Press Fit BB Internal Cable Routing Internal \"Stealth\" Dropper Post Routing Internal Shock Remote Routing
    • Sizes S - M - L - XL - 2XL
    • Fork Fox 32 Float 29 100 Dual Remote CTD
    • Front Travel 100mm. Rebound / Remote Climb (Lockout) - Trail (Compression) - Descend (Open) Settings / 15mm Axle / Tapered Steerer
    • Shock Fox Float Dual Remote CTD Custom Race Valved
    • Rear Travel SmoothLink™ Design 95mm. Rebound / Remote Climb (Lockout) - Trail (ProPedal) - Descend (Open) Settings
    • Headset Cane Creek Ten Series: IS42mm Top / 52mm Bottom Tapered
    • Stem Race Face 6° x 70-100mm
    • Handlebar Race Face Turbine Flat Wide Ø31.8mm x 700mm x 9° Sweep
    • Grips Rocky Mountain Lock On XC
    • Brakes Shimano SLX Hydraulic Disc 180mm
    • Brake Levers Shimano SLX I-Spec Shifter Mount
    • Shifters Shimano SLX Rapid Fire I- Spec 3x10spd
    • Front Derailleur Shimano SLX E Mount 3x10spd
    • Rear Derailleur Shimano XT Direct Mount 10spd
    • Cranks & Chainrings Race Face Turbine 170-175mm 42/32/24T 3x10spd
    • Bottom Bracket Race Face Press Fit Team XC
    • Cassette Shimano HG62 11-36T 10spd
    • Chain Shimano HG54 10spd
    • Front Hub Wheeltech SL Hi Tension Straight Pull / Precision Sealed Japanese Bearings / 24H / 15mm Axle
    • Rear Hub Wheeltech SL Hi Tension Straight Pull / Precision Sealed Japanese Bearings / 28H / 12 x 142mm Axle
    • Spokes DT Swiss Champion Straight Pull
    • Rims Wheeltech Inferno 23 by SUNringlé
    • Tires Continental Folding F: X King 29\" x 2.2\" / R: Race King 29\" x 2.2\"
    • Seatpost Rocky Mountain XC 30.9mm x 400mm
    • Saddle Rocky Mountain XC Light
    • Frame SMOOTHWALL™ Carbon Front Triangle FORM™ Alloy Custom Hydroformed Rear Triangle ABC™ Pivots Tapered Head Tube Press Fit BB Internal Cable Routing Internal \"Stealth\" Dropper Post Routing Internal Shock Remote Routing
    • Sizes S - M - L - XL - 2XL
    • Fork Fox 32 TALAS 29 120 FIT CTD
    • Front Travel 120-90mm Adjustable. FIT Damper / Rebound / Climb (Lockout) - Trail (3 Position Compression) - Descend (Open) Settings / 15mm Axle / Tapered Steerer
    • Shock Fox Float CTD Custom Trail Valved
    • Rear Travel SmoothLink™ Design 95mm. Rebound / Climb (X-Firm ProPedal) - Adjustable Trail (3 Position ProPedal) - Descend (Open) Settings
    • Headset Cane Creek Forty Series: IS42mm Top / 52mm Bottom Tapered
    • Stem Race Face Turbine 6° x 70-90mm
    • Handlebar Race Face Turbine Flat Wide Ø31.8mm x 700mm x 9° Sweep
    • Grips Rocky Mountain Lock On XC
    • Brakes Avid Elixir 90 XM Hydraulic Disc 180mm
    • Brake Levers Avid Elixir 90 XM MatchMaker
    • Shifters Sram X9 MatchMaker Triggers 3x10spd
    • Front Derailleur Shimano SLX E Mount 3x10spd
    • Rear Derailleur Sram X9 Type 2 All Mountain 10spd
    • Cranks & Chainrings Race Face Turbine 170-175mm 42/32/24T 3x10spd
    • Bottom Bracket Race Face Press Fit Team XC
    • Cassette Sram PG-1070 11-36T 10spd
    • Chain Sram PC-1071 10spd
    • Front Hub DT Swiss X 1.6 Straight Pull 15mm Axle
    • Rear Hub DT Swiss X 1.6 Straight Pull / Star Ratchet Freehub / 12 x 142mm
    • Spokes DT Swiss Competition Straight Pull
    • Rims DT Swiss X 1.6 Tubeless Ready
    • Tires Continental X King Folding 29\" x 2.2\"
    • Seatpost RockShox Reverb 30.9mm x 380-420mm
    • Saddle Rocky Mountain XC Light
    • Frame SMOOTHWALL™ Carbon Frame ABC™ Pivots Tapered Head Tube Press Fit BB Internal Cable Routing Internal \"Stealth\" Dropper Post Routing Internal Shock Remote Routing
    • Sizes S - M - L - XL - 2XL
    • Fork Fox 32 Float 29 100 FIT Dual Remote CTD
    • Front Travel 100mm. FIT Damper / Rebound / Remote Climb (Lockout) - Trail (Compression) - Descend (Open) Settings / 15mm Axle / Tapered Steerer
    • Shock Fox Float Dual Remote CTD Custom Race Valved
    • Rear Travel SmoothLink™ Design 95mm. Rebound / Remote Climb (Lockout) - Trail (ProPedal) - Descend (Open) Settings
    • Headset Cane Creek Forty Series: IS42mm Top / 52mm Bottom Tapered
    • Stem Race Face Turbine 6° x 70-100mm
    • Handlebar Race Face Turbine Flat Wide Ø31.8mm x 700mm x 9° Sweep
    • Grips Rocky Mountain Lock On XC
    • Brakes Shimano XT Hydraulic Disc 180mm
    • Brake Levers Shimano XT I-Spec Shifter Mount
    • Shifters Shimano XT Rapid Fire I- Spec 2x10spd
    • Front Derailleur Shimano XT E Mount 2x10spd
    • Rear Derailleur Shimano XTR 10spd
    • Cranks & Chainrings Race Face Turbine 170-175mm 38/24T 2x10spd
    • Bottom Bracket Race Face Press Fit Team XC
    • Cassette Shimano XT 11-36T 10spd
    • Chain Shimano HG94 10spd
    • Front Hub DT Swiss X 1.6 Straight Pull 15mm Axle
    • Rear Hub DT Swiss X 1.6 Straight Pull / Star Ratchet Freehub / 12 x 142mm
    • Spokes DT Swiss Competition Straight Pull
    • Rims DT Swiss X 1.6 Tubeless Ready
    • Tires Continental Folding F: X King 29\" x 2.2\" / R: Race King 29\" x 2.2\"
    • Seatpost Race Face Turbine 30.9mm x 400mm
    • Saddle fi\'zi:k Gobi XM
    • Frame SMOOTHWALL™ Carbon Frame ABC™ Pivots Tapered Head Tube Press Fit BB Internal Cable Routing Internal \"Stealth\" Dropper Post Routing Internal Shock Remote Routing
    • Sizes S - M - L - XL - 2XL
    • Fork RockShox SID XX World Cup 29
    • Front Travel 100mm. Rebound / Remote Hydraulic Lockout / Tapered Carbon Crown and Steerer / 15mm Axle
    • Shock RockShox Monarch XX Custom Valved
    • Rear Travel SmoothLink™ Design 95mm. Rebound / Internal Hydraulic Remote Lockout
    • Headset Cane Creek Forty Series: IS42mm Top / 52mm Bottom Tapered
    • Stem Race Face Turbine CNC 6° x 70-100mm
    • Handlebar Race Face Turbine Flat Wide Ø31.8mm x 700mm x 9° Sweep
    • Grips ESI Silicone Super Light
    • Brakes Sram XX World Cup Hydraulic Disc 180mm
    • Brake Levers Sram XX Carbon Matchmaker
    • Shifters Sram XX MatchMaker Triggers 2x10spd
    • Front Derailleur Sram XX S3 Direct Mount 2x10spd
    • Rear Derailleur Sram XX 10spd
    • Cranks & Chainrings Sram XX 170-175mm 39/27T 2x10spd
    • Bottom Bracket Sram Press Fit GXP
    • Cassette Sram XG-1099 11-36T 10spd
    • Chain Sram PC-1091 10spd
    • Front Hub DT Swiss X 1.4 Straight Pull 15mm Axle
    • Rear Hub DT Swiss X 1.4 Straight Pull / Star Ratchet Freehub / 12 x 142mm
    • Spokes DT Swiss Aerolite Straight Pull
    • Rims DT Swiss X 1.4 Tubeless Ready
    • Tires Continental Race Sport Black Chili F: X King 29\" x 2.2\" / R: Race King 29\" x 2.2\"
    • Seatpost Race Face Next SL Carbon 30.9mm x 400mm
    • Saddle fi\'zi:k Tundra k:ium
    • Frame SMOOTHWALL™ Carbon Frame ABC™ Pivots Tapered Head Tube Press Fit BB Internal Cable Routing Internal \"Stealth\" Dropper Post Routing Internal Shock Remote Routing
    • Sizes S - M - L - XL - 2XL
    • Fork 100 - 120mm Recommended
    • Shock Fox Float Dual Remote Kashima CTD Custom Race Valved
    • Rear Travel SmoothLink™ Design 95mm. Rebound / Remote Climb (Lockout) - Trail (ProPedal) - Descend (Open) Settings / Kashima Coating
    • Headset IS42mm Top / 52mm Bottom Tapered Compatible
    • Front Derailleur S3 E Type Direct Mount Compatible
    • Bottom Bracket BB 92 Press Fit Compatible
    • Rear Hub Shimano E-Thru 142x12mm Axle Included

We make every effort to ensure accuracy, but reserve the right to update specifications & prices without notification

Geometry: Element 999 RSL

Riding Style

s m l xl xxl
TTH Top Tube Length - HORZ 558 558mm 582 582mm 605 605mm 630 630mm 655 655mm
HTA Head Tube Angle 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg
HTL Head Tube length 100 100mm 110 110mm 120 120mm 130 130mm 145 145mm
STA Seat Tube Angle - Effective 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg
STL Seat Tube length 394 394mm 432 432mm 470 470mm 508 508mm 546 546mm
RC Rear Centre 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm
BBD Bottom bracket drop 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm
R Reach 388.2 388.2mm 409.1 409.1mm 429.4 429.4mm 451.7 451.7mm 472.7 472.7mm
S Stack 592.1 592.1mm 602.8 602.8mm 612.3 612.3mm 621.7 621.7mm 635.9 635.9mm
SH Standover Height 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm
WB Wheelbase 1066 1066mm 1097 1097mm 1120 1120mm 1146 1146mm 1172 1172mm
s m l xl xxl
TTH Top Tube Length - HORZ 558 558mm 582 582mm 605 605mm 630 630mm 655 655mm
HTA Head Tube Angle 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg
HTL Head Tube length 100 100mm 110 110mm 120 120mm 130 130mm 145 145mm
STA Seat Tube Angle - Effective 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg
STL Seat Tube length 394 394mm 432 432mm 470 470mm 508 508mm 546 546mm
RC Rear Centre 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm
BBD Bottom bracket drop 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm
R Reach 388.2 388.2mm 409.1 409.1mm 429.4 429.4mm 451.7 451.7mm 472.7 472.7mm
S Stack 592.1 592.1mm 602.8 602.8mm 612.3 612.3mm 621.7 621.7mm 635.9 635.9mm
SH Standover Height 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm
WB Wheelbase 1066 1066mm 1097 1097mm 1120 1120mm 1146 1146mm 1172 1172mm
s m l xl xxl
TTH Top Tube Length - HORZ 558 558mm 582 582mm 605 605mm 630 630mm 655 655mm
HTA Head Tube Angle 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg
HTL Head Tube length 100 100mm 110 110mm 120 120mm 130 130mm 145 145mm
STA Seat Tube Angle - Effective 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg
STL Seat Tube length 394 394mm 432 432mm 470 470mm 508 508mm 546 546mm
RC Rear Centre 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm
BBD Bottom bracket drop 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm
R Reach 388.2 388.2mm 409.1 409.1mm 429.4 429.4mm 451.7 451.7mm 472.7 472.7mm
S Stack 592.1 592.1mm 602.8 602.8mm 612.3 612.3mm 621.7 621.7mm 635.9 635.9mm
SH Standover Height 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm
WB Wheelbase 1066 1066mm 1097 1097mm 1120 1120mm 1146 1146mm 1172 1172mm
s m l xl xxl
TTH Top Tube Length - HORZ 558 558mm 582 582mm 605 605mm 630 630mm 655 655mm
HTA Head Tube Angle 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg
HTL Head Tube length 100 100mm 110 110mm 120 120mm 130 130mm 145 145mm
STA Seat Tube Angle - Effective 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg
STL Seat Tube length 394 394mm 432 432mm 470 470mm 508 508mm 546 546mm
RC Rear Centre 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm
BBD Bottom bracket drop 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm
R Reach 388.2 388.2mm 409.1 409.1mm 429.4 429.4mm 451.7 451.7mm 472.7 472.7mm
S Stack 592.1 592.1mm 602.8 602.8mm 612.3 612.3mm 621.7 621.7mm 635.9 635.9mm
SH Standover Height 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm
WB Wheelbase 1066 1066mm 1097 1097mm 1120 1120mm 1146 1146mm 1172 1172mm
s m l xl xxl
TTH Top Tube Length - HORZ 558 558mm 582 582mm 605 605mm 630 630mm 655 655mm
HTA Head Tube Angle 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg
HTL Head Tube length 100 100mm 110 110mm 120 120mm 130 130mm 145 145mm
STA Seat Tube Angle - Effective 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg
STL Seat Tube length 394 394mm 432 432mm 470 470mm 508 508mm 546 546mm
RC Rear Centre 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm
BBD Bottom bracket drop 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm
R Reach 388.2 388.2mm 409.1 409.1mm 429.4 429.4mm 451.7 451.7mm 472.7 472.7mm
S Stack 592.1 592.1mm 602.8 602.8mm 612.3 612.3mm 621.7 621.7mm 635.9 635.9mm
SH Standover Height 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm
WB Wheelbase 1066 1066mm 1097 1097mm 1120 1120mm 1146 1146mm 1172 1172mm
s m l xl xxl
TTH Top Tube Length - HORZ 558 558mm 582 582mm 605 605mm 630 630mm 655 655mm
HTA Head Tube Angle 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg
HTL Head Tube length 100 100mm 110 110mm 120 120mm 130 130mm 145 145mm
STA Seat Tube Angle - Effective 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg
STL Seat Tube length 394 394mm 432 432mm 470 470mm 508 508mm 546 546mm
RC Rear Centre 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm
BBD Bottom bracket drop 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm
R Reach 388.2 388.2mm 409.1 409.1mm 429.4 429.4mm 451.7 451.7mm 472.7 472.7mm
S Stack 592.1 592.1mm 602.8 602.8mm 612.3 612.3mm 621.7 621.7mm 635.9 635.9mm
SH Standover Height 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm
WB Wheelbase 1066 1066mm 1097 1097mm 1120 1120mm 1146 1146mm 1172 1172mm
s m l xl xxl
TTH Top Tube Length - HORZ 558 558mm 582 582mm 605 605mm 630 630mm 655 655mm
HTA Head Tube Angle 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg 70.6 70.6deg
HTL Head Tube length 100 100mm 110 110mm 120 120mm 130 130mm 145 145mm
STA Seat Tube Angle - Effective 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg 74 74deg
STL Seat Tube length 394 394mm 432 432mm 470 470mm 508 508mm 546 546mm
RC Rear Centre 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm 445 445mm
BBD Bottom bracket drop 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm 40 40mm
R Reach 388.2 388.2mm 409.1 409.1mm 429.4 429.4mm 451.7 451.7mm 472.7 472.7mm
S Stack 592.1 592.1mm 602.8 602.8mm 612.3 612.3mm 621.7 621.7mm 635.9 635.9mm
SH Standover Height 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm 771 771mm
WB Wheelbase 1066 1066mm 1097 1097mm 1120 1120mm 1146 1146mm 1172 1172mm
Model Geometry Chart
  • TTH: Top Tube Length - HORZ
  • TTL: Top Tube length - Actual
  • HTA: Head Tube Angle
  • HTL: Head Tube length
  • STA: Seat Tube Angle - Effective
  • STL: Seat Tube length
  • RC: Rear Centre
  • BBD: Bottom bracket drop
  • BBH: Bottom bracket height
  • R: Reach
  • S: Stack
  • SH: Standover Height
  • WB: Wheelbase
  • FC: Front-Centre
  • FO: Fork Offset

We make every effort to ensure accuracy, but reserve the right to update specifications & prices without notification

Technologies: Element 999 RSL

    • Smoothwall™ carbon

      Frame Construction

      Smoothwall™ carbon uses one of the world’s most sophisticated carbon processes to deliver industry leading stiffness-to-weight, ride quality, and durability. We eliminate excess resin and fibers by using rigid internal molds instead of traditional air bladders. We then utilize different types of carbon in specific frame areas to maximize stiffness and impact resistance while minimizing overall weight.

    • FORM™ alloy

      Frame Construction

      FORM™ tubesets utilize premium materials to meet our strict requirements. Each FORM™ tube that we create is engineered for its specific purpose within the frame, ensuring optimized strength, weight, and ride quality.

    • ABC™ pivots

      Frame Construction

      ABC pivots are light and stiff. Unlike other bushings, our patented system controls the contact of the bushing surfaces, reducing stiction and binding. Their angled bushing surfaces increase their relative contact area, optimizing them for compact locations like chainstay pivots.

    • Smoothlink™ suspension is efficient yet supple when you’re on the pedals and across a wide range of gears. It features a controlled end-stroke and a rate-curve that feels more capable than the travel would suggest. This four-bar suspension design philosophy is centred on ride characteristics; each bike platform we develop balances variables like anti-squat, axle path, chain growth, rate curve, anti-rise, etc. to achieve the legendary Rocky Mountain ride feel.

    • RTC™ Design

      Geometry

      Every riding style demands a different set of design principles. Whether we’re creating an XC-race weapon or an all mountain adventure machine, Ride Tuned Concept (RTC™) ensures that key variables like wheel size, suspension travel, and geometry work together to optimize ride quality.

We make every effort to ensure accuracy, but reserve the right to update specifications & prices without notification